OpenSPP Glossary#


Administrator-driven approach for intake and registration (aka supply-driven approach or en masse registration approach)#

Approaches sometimes used to register groups of household to be assessed and considered for potential inclusion in one or more programs. Three key features characterize administrator-driven approaches: (1) the impetus for initiating the engagement is driven by administrators, not the people being registered (state ≥ people); (2) registration is usually carried out en masse (groups or cohorts of households); and (3) timing: the timetable for administrator-driven approaches is typically driven by financing and capacity, not by the timing or needs of specific households. See also on-demand approach.

🇫🇷 Approche impulsée par les gestionnaires de programmes pour l'accueil et l'enregistrement (aussi appelée approche axée sur l'offre ou approche d'enregistrement collectif)
🇪🇸 Enfoque dirigido por las administraciones de programas para la recepción y el registro (también conocido como enfoque impulsado por la oferta o enfoque de registro masivo)
🇸🇦 النهج الذي يقوده المسؤولون للقبول والتسجيل (المعروف أيضًا بالنهج القاذم علي العرض أو نهج التسجيل الجماعي)

grievance about the correctness of decisions made by the programs. It may be a simple administrative error by the program, or involve fundamental issues of eligibility and entitlement, which can involve misinterpretation of the law by program; refusal of benefit or service; miscalculation of entitlements; or wrong categorization of the potential beneficiaries.

🇫🇷 Réclamations/plaintes
🇪🇸 Apelaciones
🇸🇦 استئنافات

Individuals, families, or household who apply for benefits and services at their own initiative. See also registrant.

🇫🇷 Demandeurs
🇪🇸 Solicitantes
🇸🇦 مقدمو الطلبات
Assessment of needs and conditions#

Systematic processes for determining the needs and conditions of registered individuals, families, or household for the purposes of (1) determining potential eligibility for specific programs and/or (2) informing the determination of benefits and services that may be rendered by the programs.

🇫🇷 Évaluation des besoins et des conditions de vie
🇪🇸 Evaluación de las necesidades y condiciones de vida
🇸🇦 تقييم الاحتياجات والظروف
Assistance unit#

The focus of an intervention. It can be an individual, a family, or a household.

🇫🇷 Unité d'assistance
🇪🇸 Unidad de asistencia
🇸🇦 وحدة المساعدة

Process of establishing confidence that a person is who they claim to be. Digital authentication generally involves a person electronically presenting one or more “authentication factors” to “assert” their identity—that is, to prove that they are the same person to whom the identity or credential was originally issued.

🇫🇷 Authentification
🇪🇸 Autenticación
🇸🇦 المصادقة


Beneficiary operations management#

Stage along the social protection delivery chain that involves the activity of continuously engaging and collecting information from the field or other sources (such as other databases), which is then processed through a set of protocols, recorded, and used to make decisions. This simple pattern of engaging, collecting, processing, and deciding is the common thread that ties together the set of activities that occur continuously in the implementation of a program. beneficiary operations management includes three main functions, which are implemented simultaneously: beneficiary data management, monitoring of conditionalities, and implementation of a mechanism for the redress of grievance.

🇫🇷 Gestion des opérations des bénéficiaires
🇪🇸 Gestión de las operaciones de los beneficiarios
🇸🇦 إدارة عمليات المستفيدين
Beneficiary registry#

Database of beneficiaries of a social protection program. It is also a component of the beneficiary operations management system. These beneficiary registries contain information on program beneficiaries. Registries that contain information on beneficiaries of multiple programs are known as integrated beneficiary registries.

🇫🇷 Registre des bénéficiaires
🇪🇸 Registro de beneficiarios
🇸🇦 سجل المستفيدين

In the context of social protection, beneficiaries are the individuals or household targeted by a programme to benefit from a transfer. See also: Recipients

🇫🇷 Bénéficiaire, bénéficiaires
🇪🇸 Beneficiario, beneficiarios
🇸🇦 المستفيد، المستفيدين

Something tangible that is given by social protection programs to individuals, families, or household. They may be in the form of cash transfers or in-kind (such as food stamps, food rations, and subsidies). They may be noncontributory social assistance programs that are financed by general revenues, or they may be financed by direct contributions as a form of social insurance.

🇫🇷 Prestations
🇪🇸 Beneficios
🇸🇦 فوائد
Biometric identification#

Process of searching against a biometric enrollment database to find and return the biometric reference identifier(s) attributable to a single individual. The comparison may be either a one-to-one (1:1) matching—commonly referred to as “biometric verification”—where comparison is done against a single template, or one-to-many (1:N) matching, where comparison is done against multiple templates.

🇫🇷 Identification biométrique
🇪🇸 Identificación biométrica
🇸🇦 المعرف الحيوي
Biometrics or biometric data#

Physiological or behavioral characteristics that are unique to an individual (e.g., fingerprints, voice patterns) and that can be used as a means of automatic verification of identity.

🇫🇷 Biométrie ou données biométriques
🇪🇸 Biometría o datos biométricos
🇸🇦 القياسات الحيوية/يانات القياس الحيوي


Case management#

The term "case management" is particularly problematic as it is used differently by various professions (for example, by social workers, health care workers, and IT specialists). Further, some may use the term “case management” to mean what we call beneficiary operations management. Some practitioners use the term case management to mean social work (covering awareness, intermediation, referrals, and counseling). Others use the term to refer to an integrated approach to managing clients all along the delivery chain (through the entire “life of the case,” as some practitioners call it). To avoid confusion, we avoid the term.

🇫🇷 Gestion des cas
🇪🇸 Gestión social individualizada
🇸🇦 إدارة الحالات
Cash transfers#

Money distributed to individuals, families, or household. Cash transfers are direct, regular, and predictable noncontributory cash payments that help beneficiaries to raise and smooth incomes. The term encompasses a range of instruments (e.g., social pensions, child grants, public works programs, unconditional or conditional cash transfers, etc.) and a spectrum of design, implementation, and financing options.

🇫🇷 Transferts en espèces
🇪🇸 Transferencias monetarias
🇸🇦 التحويلات النقدية
Categorical targeting#

targeting mechanism in which eligibility is defined for groups of the population on the basis of specific observable characteristics, such as age. Examples include social pensions for the elderly, child allowance, birth allowances, family allowance, and orphan benefits.

🇫🇷 Ciblage catégoriel
🇪🇸 Focalización categórica
🇸🇦 الاستهداف الفئوي
Census-sweep registration method#

Mass registration of household into the social registry. With the census sweep approach, all or most households in specific areas (or the entire country) are registered en masse. In contrast to the on-demand approach (see below), with the census-sweep approach, enumerator teams go to the communities and conduct intake and registration using door-to-door methods.

🇫🇷 Méthode d'enregistrement basée sur un recensement
🇪🇸 Método de registro mediante barrido censal
🇸🇦 طريقة التسجيل بالمسح الإحصائي
Child allowance#

Cash benefit provided to families based on the presence and number of children in the family. The benefit may vary by the ordinal position of the child, the age of the child, or the employment status of the parent. eligibility can be universal or based on an assessment of socioeconomic status (such as means testing).

🇫🇷 Allocation pour enfant
🇪🇸 Asignación por hijo
🇸🇦 علاوة الطفل
Child protective services (CPS)#

services provided for the protection of children who are at risk of, or experiencing, neglect (physical or emotional) or abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional). The focus is on the safety of the child, but support may also be provided to parents or other family members to strengthen families and promote safe, nurturing homes for the children.

🇫🇷 Services de protection de l'enfance (SPE)
🇪🇸 Servicios de protección a la infancia (SPI)
🇸🇦 خدمات حماية الطفولة (KHD)
Child support#

Financial support provided by a nonresident, noncustodial parent for the support of a child.

🇫🇷 Pension alimentaire pour enfants
🇪🇸 Manutención infantil
🇸🇦 دعم الطفل
Child welfare services#

social services for children at-risk and their families, including child protective services, adoption and foster care, family preservation, and care services (home, community, or residential/institutional care).

🇫🇷 Aide à l'enfance
🇪🇸 Servicios de bienestar de menores
🇸🇦 خدمات رعاية الطفولة
Civil registration#

The continuous, permanent, compulsory, and universal recording of the occurrence and characteristics of vital events (e.g., live births, deaths, fetal deaths, marriages, and divorces) and other civil status events pertaining to the population as provided by decree, law, or regulation, in accordance with the legal requirements in each country.

🇫🇷 Inscription à l'état civil
🇪🇸 Registro civil
🇸🇦 التسجيل المدني
Community-based targeting#

Mechanism by which local communities are given discretion to determine which individuals, families, or household will be selected as beneficiaries of a particular program—or to determine which would be registered into a social registry for further assessment of their needs and conditions and eventual consideration for potential eligibility in social programs.

🇫🇷 Ciblage communautaire
🇪🇸 Focalización comunitaria
🇸🇦 التوجيه المجتمعي

grievance about the quality or type of processes for delivering benefits and/or services. They can arise due to delays, wait times, long lines, excessive documentation requirements, program staff behavior, public office accommodation, lack of information about the program decisions, difficulty accessing social protection benefits and/or services, and so on.

🇫🇷 Réclamation
🇪🇸 Reclamo
🇸🇦 شكوى
Compliance and noncompliance (of conditionalities)#

Compliance refers to the carrying out of specific conditionalities or co-responsibilities required for participation in the program by beneficiaries. Noncompliance refers to the failure to carry out said conditionalities.

🇫🇷 Conformité et non-conformité (aux conditionnalités)
🇪🇸 Cumplimiento e incumplimiento (de las condicionalidades)
🇸🇦 الامتثال وعدم الامتثال (للشروط)
Compliance period#

The period in each conditionalities monitoring cycle during which beneficiaries would be observed for compliance monitoring (in other words, when they would be expected to comply).

🇫🇷 Période de conformité
🇪🇸 Período de cumplimiento
🇸🇦 فترة الالتزام
Compliance rates#

A performance indicator that measures the number of individuals complying with required conditionalities for a program (numerator) as a share (%) of total individuals monitored (denominator). This indicator is usually monitored for individuals within a specific categorical group, such as school-age children, pregnant/lactating mothers, and so on.

🇫🇷 Taux de conformité
🇪🇸 Índices de cumplimiento
🇸🇦 معدلات الالتزام
Compliance verification period#

The time period during which compliance verification processing is carried out within each conditionalities monitoring cycle. The allotted period may differ from the actual time taken to carry out all the steps, which would be measured through a process evaluation (and could be more or less than the time allotted).

🇫🇷 Période de vérification de la conformité
🇪🇸 Período de verificación del cumplimiento
🇸🇦 مدة التحقق من الامتثال
Compliance verification processing#

The process of verifying that beneficiaries have complied with program conditionalities. This process could include preparation and distribution of beneficiary lists; gathering, recording, entering, processing, and transmittal of data on compliance (or on noncompliance); and taking decisions as to whether beneficiaries have complied with the conditionalities.

🇫🇷 Processus de vérification de la conformité
🇪🇸 Procesamiento de la verificación del cumplimiento
🇸🇦 معالجة التحقق من الامتثال
Conditional cash transfers (CCTs)#

social assistance programs that make receipt of benefits conditional upon beneficiary actions (such as school attendance or health care visits), typically with the objectives of reducing poverty and providing incentives for investing in human capital.

🇫🇷 Transferts monétaires conditionnels (TMC)
🇪🇸 Transferencias monetarias condicionadas (TMC)
🇸🇦 التحويلات النقدية الشرطية
Conditionalities monitoring#

The monitoring of beneficiary household members’ compliance with conditionalities and processing of associated data. This is the “umbrella term” that covers compliance monitoring periods and compliance verification period/processes.

🇫🇷 Contrôle des conditionnalités
🇪🇸 Monitoreo de las condicionalidades
🇸🇦 رصد الشروط
Conditionalities monitoring cycle#

The recurring period that begins with the latest roster of beneficiary household, with information on pertinent family members (inputs), and ends with a revised beneficiary roster that updates with information on compliance for that cycle, as well as any decisions on consequences for noncompliance (outputs), which would link back to the payroll for the next payment cycle (outputs). The conditionalities monitoring cycle includes both the compliance period and the compliance verification period.

🇫🇷 Cycle de contrôle des conditionnalités
🇪🇸 Ciclo de monitoreo de las condicionalidades
🇸🇦 دورة رصد المشروطيات/الشروط
Conditionalities monitoring rates#

A performance indicator that measures the number of individuals for which the program monitors conditionalities compliance information (numerator) as a share (percent) of total individuals in that category (denominator). This indicator is usually monitored for individuals within a specific categorical group, such as school-age children, pregnant/lactating mothers, and so on.

🇫🇷 Taux de contrôle des conditionnalités
🇪🇸 Índices de monitoreo de las condicionalidades
🇸🇦 معدلات رصد الشروط

The set of obligations that each beneficiary household must comply with in order to continue receiving cash benefits. Common examples include school attendance, health visits, and labor/work efforts.

🇫🇷 Conditionnalités (ou « coresponsabilités »)
🇪🇸 Condicionalidades (también conocidas como corresponsabilidades)
🇸🇦 الشروط (المعروفة أيضا باسم «المسؤوليات المشتركة»)

Commonly involves manipulation of beneficiary rosters, for example, registering ineligible beneficiaries to garner political support, staff accepting illegal payments from eligible or ineligible beneficiaries, or diversion of funds to ghost beneficiaries or other illegal channels.

🇫🇷 Corruption
🇪🇸 Corrupción
🇸🇦 الفساد


Data dictionary#

A repository that contains descriptions of all data objects consumed or produced by the software. An organized listing of all data elements that are pertinent to the system, with precise, rigorous definitions so that both user and system analyst will have a common understanding of inputs, outputs, components of stores, and (even) intermediate calculations.

🇫🇷 Dictionnaire de données
🇪🇸 Diccionario de datos
🇸🇦 قاموس البيانات
Data integration#

Combines data from different sources and provides users with a unified view of these data for service integration. When services are provided by multiple suppliers, the service integration challenge is to seamlessly integrate them into end-to-end services that operate as a single IT service delivery model. Data integration involves the practice of applying architectural techniques and tools to provide access and delivery of data with varied data types and structures in order to meet the data needs of the applications and business processes within an organization.

🇫🇷 Intégration des données
🇪🇸 Integración de datos
🇸🇦 دمج البيانات
Data privacy#

The appropriate and permissioned use and governance of personal data.

🇫🇷 Confidentialité des données
🇪🇸 Privacidad de los datos
🇸🇦 خصوصية البيانات
Data protection#

The securing of collected information. Data protection is fundamental to ensuring data privacy.

🇫🇷 Protection des données
🇪🇸 Protección de datos
🇸🇦 حماية البيانات
Data validation#

Quality control processes to ensure that data are valid (complete, accurate, and consistent). It is the process of comparing data with a set of rules to find out if data are reasonable. There are many types of data validation, including the following:- Format check. Data are formatted correctly (e.g., date format of dd/mm/yyyy).- Presence check. Data have been entered into a field. - Range check. Value falls within the specified range (e.g., IB grades can only range between 0 and 7).- Type check. Correct data type has been entered (e.g., age should be a number).

🇫🇷 Validation des données
🇪🇸 Validación de datos
🇸🇦 تصديق بيانات‏
Data verification#

Quality control processes to ensure that data values match information in other administrative systems (via cross-checking). It is the process of checking that the data entered exactly matches the original/authoritative source to find out if data are accurate.

🇫🇷 Vérification des données
🇪🇸 Verificación de datos
🇸🇦 التحقق من البيانات

Assignment of policy responsibility and/or decision-making authority to a subnational (state, regional) or local (municipality, county) level of government from a higher level of government (including a transfer of such responsibilities from central to subnational or from subnational to local).

🇫🇷 Décentralisation
🇪🇸 Descentralización, o descentralizado
🇸🇦 اللامركزية
Decision on benefits and service packages#

Setting benefit levels (for cash or in-kind benefits) and/or defining the service package (for services) that will be provided to eligible beneficiaries of social program(s) and establishing and notifying beneficiaries of such decisions (and any associated conditions on their participation).

🇫🇷 Décisions relatives à l'ensemble des prestations et des services
🇪🇸 Determinación del paquete de beneficios y servicios
🇸🇦 قرار بشأن المزايا وحزم الخدمات

The process whereby a central organization transfers some of its responsibilities to lower-level units within its jurisdiction.

🇫🇷 Déconcentration
🇪🇸 Desconcentración, o desconcentrado
🇸🇦 اللامركزة أو اللامركزة

A technique to detect duplicate identity records. Biometric data—including fingerprints and iris scans—are commonly used to de-duplicate identities in order to identify false or inconsistent identity claims and to establish uniqueness.

🇫🇷 Déduplication
🇪🇸 Deduplicación
🇸🇦 إلغاء التكرار
Delivery chain#

social protection (including labor) benefits and services pass through common implementation phases along the delivery chain, including outreach, intake and registration, assessment of needs and conditions, eligibility and enrollment decisions, determination of benefits or service package, notification and onboarding, provision of payments or services, and beneficiary operations management.

🇫🇷 Chaîne de mise en œuvre
🇪🇸 Cadena de implementación
🇸🇦 سلسلة التوصيل
Delivery chain process mapping#

A management tool for mapping the sequencing of implementation processes across actors (institutions) or levels of government. Important for establishing uniqueness and clarity of roles, and useful for mapping the “as-is” processes and potential “to-be” vision for reforms. In addition to mapping the sequencing by actor, there may be a time dimension (calendar of implementation cycles).

🇫🇷 Cartographie de la chaîne de mise en œuvre
🇪🇸 Mapeo del proceso de la cadena de implementación
🇸🇦 رسم خريطة لعملية سلسلة التوصيل
Delivery systems#

See social protection Delivery systems.

🇫🇷 Systèmes de mise en œuvre
🇪🇸 Sistemas de implementación
🇸🇦 أنظمة التوصيل
Designated recipient#

The individual in the beneficiary family or household who is designated as the grantee or recipient of benefits when they are paid out (for authentication and payment purposes). A designated recipient should be named for all benefits for which the assistance unit is a group (family or household). A designated recipient may also be needed for individual-based benefits if the beneficiary requires some guardian to act on their behalf (such as with orphans or severely disabled individuals).

🇫🇷 Récipiendaire désigné
🇪🇸 Destinatario designado
🇸🇦 المستلم المعين

Persons with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual, or sensory impairments which, in interaction with various barriers, may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others (International Labour Organization). An individual with a disability is defined as a person who (1) has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; (2) has a record of such an impairment; or (3) is regarded as having such an impairment.

🇫🇷 Personnes handicapées
🇪🇸 Personas en condición de discapacidad
🇸🇦 معاق
Discouraged workers (aka available potential job seekers)#

Persons not currently in the labor market who want to work but do not actively seek work because they view job opportunities as limited, or because they have restricted labor mobility, or face discrimination, or face structural, social, or cultural barriers. They are also called “available potential job seekers," or "hidden unemployed," and are considered part of the potential labor force.

🇫🇷 Travailleurs découragés (ou demandeurs d'emploi potentiels disponibles)
🇪🇸 Trabajadores desmotivados (también denominados potenciales buscadores de empleo disponibles)
🇸🇦 العمال المثبطين (ويعرف أيضًا باسم الباحثين المحتملين عن عمل)
Dynamic data or transactional data#

Data that change as a result of an event (a transaction). The data have a time dimension, a numerical value, and refer to one or more reference data objects such as orders, invoices, and payments.

🇫🇷 Données dynamiques ou transactionnelles
🇪🇸 Datos dinámicos o datos transaccionales
🇸🇦 بيانات ديناميكية أو بيانات المعاملات



It is central to the performance of delivery systems. As defined by the OECD/DAC (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Develelopment/Development Assistance Committee) evaluation criteria, effectiveness is a measure of the extent to which a program or activity attains its objective. In this Sourcebook, an effective system is not only one that reaches, registers, and provides benefits and services to most of the intended population, but is also a system that is inclusive because it accommodates the specific needs of vulnerable populations and those who face access barriers. Consequently, the evaluation criterion of inclusion is embedded within effectiveness to reflect this logic.

🇫🇷 Efficacité
🇪🇸 Eficacia
🇸🇦 فعالية

Another important dimension of the performance of delivery systems, albeit one that is difficult to measure. Ensuring that outcomes are achieved at reasonable costs, including moving clients through the various phases of the delivery chain at minimal cost in terms of time and money both for administrators and clients, is critical to evaluating performance. Alternative measures of efficiency include processing times for various phases or stages along the delivery chain.

🇫🇷 Efficience
🇪🇸 Eficiencia
🇸🇦 الكفاءة

Eligibility in the context of social protection refers to the criteria that determine who can access social protection programs. These criteria vary based on the specific program's goals and the context in which it operates.

🇫🇷 Éligibilité
🇪🇸 Elegibilidad
🇸🇦 الأهلية
Eligibility criteria#

eligibility criteria in social protection refer to the specific conditions or requirements that individuals or household must meet to qualify for assistance or benefits under social protection programs. These criteria are crucial in ensuring that support is targeted effectively towards those who need it most.

🇫🇷 Critères d'éligibilité
🇪🇸 Criterios de elegibilidad
🇸🇦 معايير الأهلية
Employment incentives#

are strategies or measures designed to encourage individuals to seek, obtain, or retain employment. These incentives are often part of broader social protection policies and programs.

🇫🇷 Incitations à l'emploi
🇪🇸 Incentivos al empleo
🇸🇦 حوافز العمل
Enrollment decisions#

Decisions taken by social program administrators to admit individuals, families, and/or household into that specific program. Those decisions usually consider the assessment of needs and conditions, eligibility criteria, as well as other program-specific factors (such as fiscal space).

🇫🇷 Décisions d'inscription
🇪🇸 Decisiones de inscripción
🇸🇦 قرارات التسجيل



A family is defined for operational purposes as “a group of two people or more related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together; all such people (including related subfamily members) are considered as members of one family.”

🇫🇷 Famille
🇪🇸 Familia
🇸🇦 الأسرة
Family allowance#

See child allowance.

🇫🇷 Allocation familiale
🇪🇸 Asignación familiar
🇸🇦 علاوة الاسرة
Foundational identification system#

A system for proving (or “authenticating”) an individual’s unique identity. It uses a minimal set of attributes, such as biographic and biometric data, to exclusively describe an individual and, on that basis, to provide government-recognized identity credentials. It is “foundational” relative to various functional systems and databases (e.g., education, health) on which it relies, but it is a parallel and complementary component (along with, for instance, the civil registration system) of the larger ecosystem.

🇫🇷 Système d'identification fondamental
🇪🇸 Sistema básico de identificación
🇸🇦 نظام التعريف الأساسي

Occurs when a claimant deliberately makes a false statement or conceals or distorts relevant information regarding program eligibility or level of benefits.

🇫🇷 Fraude
🇪🇸 Fraude
🇸🇦 الاحتيال


Geographic targeting mechanisms#

A means of focusing interventions on individuals, families, or household living in a certain area.

🇫🇷 Mécanismes de ciblage géographique
🇪🇸 Mecanismos de focalización geográfica
🇸🇦 آليات التوجيه الجغرافي

Refers to two distinct categories: (1) complaint, and (2) appeals, and any other feedback from the general population, the intended population, registrant, applicants, beneficiaries, or other stakeholders of the social protection program.

🇫🇷 Réclamation
🇪🇸 Reclamo
🇸🇦 شكوى
Grievance redress mechanism (GRM)#

A formalized way to accept, sort, assess, and resolve complaint, appeals, and queries from the program beneficiaries and other stakeholders. The GRM is composed of a set of institutional structures, mandated rules, procedures, and processes through which complaints, appeals, and queries about the social protection program(s) are resolved.

🇫🇷 Mécanisme de gestion des réclamations (MGR)
🇪🇸 Mecanismo de quejas y reclamos (MQR)
🇸🇦 آلية تسوية الشكاوى (ATS)
Guaranteed minimum income (GMI) programs#

social assistance programs that differentiate benefit amounts according to the difference between specific incomes of each beneficiary household and an established amount, with the objective of ensuring at least that “guaranteed minimum income” level.

🇫🇷 Programme de revenu minimum garanti (RMG)
🇪🇸 Programas de ingreso mínimo garantizado (IMG)
🇸🇦 برامج الحد الأدنى المضمون للدخل (GMI)


Hard-to-serve individuals or families#

In general, hard-to-serve individuals or families face multiple risks and constraints, and the complexity that arises with that multiplicity makes it hard to serve them with labor and social services, requiring coordinated or integrated service approaches to help them reduce their social risks and narrow their distance to the labor market.

🇫🇷 Personnes ou familles difficiles à servir
🇪🇸 Personas o familias difíciles de atender
🇸🇦 الأفراد أو الأسر الذين يصعب خدمتهم
Home care services#

Supportive care services that are provided to individuals or families in the home. Care may be provided by professional caregivers who provide daily assistance to ensure the activities of daily living are met, or by licensed healthcare professionals who provide medical treatment needs.

🇫🇷 Service de soins à domicile
🇪🇸 Servicios de cuidado a domicilio
🇸🇦 خدمات الرعاية المنزلية
Horizontal and vertical coordination#

Horizontal coordination involves multiple actors at the same hierarchical administrative level (e.g., coordination across peer-level central agencies or coordination across local actors). Vertical collaboration involves multiple actors across administrative levels (e.g., between centraland local-level actors).

🇫🇷 Coordination horizontale et verticale
🇪🇸 Coordinación horizontal y vertical
🇸🇦 التنسيق الأفقي والرأسي

Any individual or group of individuals who are living as one economic unit, who buy food and make meals together.

🇫🇷 Ménage
🇪🇸 Hogar
🇸🇦 منزل
Human-centered design#

The continual process of understanding and meeting user needs. More specifically, human-centered design is a multidisciplinary approach to solving the needs and problems of the end-user (people) and the government’s capabilities for transformation.

🇫🇷 Conception centrée sur l'humain
🇪🇸 Diseño centrado en las personas
🇸🇦 التصميم المركز حول الإنسان
Hybrid means testing (HMT)#

A type of socioeconomic assessment that combines means testing with proxy means testing by gathering information on a household’s observable income as verifiable welfare (as in means testing) and information on certain household assets to predict nonverifiable welfare (as in proxy means testing).

🇫🇷 Évaluation hybride des ressources (EHR)
🇪🇸 Comprobación híbrida de los medios de vida (CHM)
🇸🇦 اختبار الهجين (EHT)



Action or process of identifying a person (cf. “authentication”). In its initial occurrence, it typically involves the assignation of an identity number (which is often unique) and the issuance of an identity credential which, alone or with the support of some other authentication factor (e.g., biometrics), is subsequently used to prove or authenticate a person’s identity.

🇫🇷 Identification
🇪🇸 Identificación
🇸🇦 هوية
Identity assurance#

Ability to determine with a degree of certainty—or level of assurance (LoA)—that a claim to a particular identity made by some person or entity can be trusted to actually be the claimant’s “true” identity.

🇫🇷 Assurance d'identité
🇪🇸 Garantía de identidad
🇸🇦 ضمان الهوية
Identity proofing#

Process of establishing that a subject is who he or she claims to be.

🇫🇷 Vérification d'identité
🇪🇸 Prueba de identidad
🇸🇦 إثبات الهوية

Individuals considered “outside the labor force,” neither employed nor unemployed, that is, not actively seeking work. There are a variety of reasons why some individuals do not participate in the labor force; such persons may be occupied in caring for family members; they may be retired, sick, disabled, or attending school; they may believe no jobs are available; or they may simply not want to work.

🇫🇷 Inactifs
🇪🇸 Personas inactivas
🇸🇦 غير نشط
Individualized action plan (IAP)#

Also referred to as a service plan, family action plan, mutual responsibilities agreement, or personal progression plan, it is an agreement between a caseworker and beneficiary that typically includes a summary of the individual assessment including profiling results; goals and agreed steps toward the goals; benefits (if any); the list of services assigned or referred; required actions and commitments of both parties (the beneficiary and the caseworker); rules and procedures regarding sanctions for noncompliance with required actions; beneficiary rights and responsibilities; and information on grievance redress mechanism (GRM) procedures. During the enrollment onboarding phase, the IAP would be signed by both the beneficiary and the caseworker.

🇫🇷 Plan d'action individualisé (PAI)
🇪🇸 Plan de acción individualizado (PAI)
🇸🇦 خطة العمل الفردية (IAP)

Refers to a state or condition where a person, entity, or item does not meet the set criteria or requirements to qualify for a particular status, benefit, program, or activity.

🇫🇷 Inéligible
🇪🇸 Inelegible
🇸🇦 غير مؤهل

Data become “information” when analyzed and possibly combined with other data in order to extract meaning and to provide context.

🇫🇷 Informations
🇪🇸 Información
🇸🇦 معلومات
Information security#

The practice of defending electronic or physical information from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording, or destruction. Information security relates to the preservation of confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information, in addition to other properties such as authenticity, accountability, nonrepudiation and reliability (ISO/IEC 27000:2009). Information security ensures that only authorized users (confidentiality) have access to accurate and complete information (integrity) when required (availability).

🇫🇷 Sécurité de l'information
🇪🇸 Seguridad de la información
🇸🇦 أمن المعلومات
Information systems#

A discrete set of information resources, such as personnel, equipment, funds, and information technology, organized for the collection, processing, maintenance, use, sharing, dissemination, or disposition of information.

🇫🇷 Système d'information
🇪🇸 Sistemas de información
🇸🇦 أنظمة المعلومات
Information technology#

Any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information by the executive agency.

🇫🇷 Technologie de l'information
🇪🇸 Tecnología de la información
🇸🇦 تكنولوجيا المعلومات
Institutional care services#

A type of treatment provided to an individual in a formal residential environment by an institute, other family, or other organized form aiming at providing care services (social or health services).

🇫🇷 Services de soins institutionnels
🇪🇸 Servicios de cuidado institucional
🇸🇦 خدمات الرعاية المؤسسية
Integrated beneficiary registry#

"Integrated beneficiary registries incorporate data from programme beneficiary registries of several different schemes. They provide a consolidated overview of data collected by different programmes, showing “who receives what” benefits (focusing on beneficiaries alone). These are also variously described as ‘single registry’ or ‘unified beneficiary registry’. [Definition adapted from]"

🇫🇷 Registre de bénéficiaires intégré
🇪🇸 Registro integrado de beneficiarios
🇸🇦 سجل المستفيدين المتكامل
Integrated information management framework#

A framework that integrates all of an organization's systems and processes, enabling an organization to work as a single unit with unified objective. It links information across different services/systems and integrates information across agencies for a given user.

🇫🇷 Cadre intégré de gestion de l'information
🇪🇸 Marco integrado de gestión de la información
🇸🇦 إطار إدارة المعلومات المتكامل
Intended population#

The group of individuals, families, or household who are meant to be included as potential beneficiaries of a program. Also referred to as a ""target group.""

🇫🇷 Population ciblée
🇪🇸 Población objetivo
🇸🇦 السكان المستهدفون

An integrated service-provision approach used in both labor and social services. Intermediation is a service in its own right—and it also connects people (workers) to other services. It is the process of informing clients about a range of benefits and services relevant to their needs, and directing them to the corresponding access point, based on agreed protocols with service provider agencies, sometimes with individualized action plans (IAPs), to help them overcome multiple socioeconomic barriers. Intermediation connects the demand and supply of social or labor services. The role of the mediator (social caseworker or public employment officer) is to correctly identify the needs of the participant (demand side—through risk screening and profiling) and then to identify the availability of services and service providers (supply side) and then connect them with referrals and counter-referrals (monitoring and follow-up) on the basis of an action plan, protocols, service contracts, and service standards.

🇫🇷 Intermédiation
🇪🇸 Intermediación
🇸🇦 الوساطة


Labor markets#

Actual pools of skilled or unskilled labor available within local, national, or global economies, and activities intended to reduce risk and to improve the efficiency of the labor market and to increase the employability of workers, including employment security and protection. Includes employment and advisory services, training and retraining, and labor market information systems, including the design, purchase, and implementation of computer software and hardware.

🇫🇷 Marchés du travail
🇪🇸 Mercados laborales
🇸🇦 أسواق العمل
Long-term unemployment#

Refers to those who have been unemployed for more than a certain time period, such as 52 weeks (1 year, International Labour Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) or 27 weeks (US Bureau of Labor Statistics).

🇫🇷 Chômage de longue durée
🇪🇸 Desempleo de largo plazo (DLP)
🇸🇦 البطالة طويلة الأجل


Master data#

A single source of common business data that are agreed upon and shared across the organization, and are used across multiple systems, applications, and processes. Examples include data about customers, products, employees, suppliers, materials, vendors, and so on.

🇫🇷 Données de base
🇪🇸 Datos maestros
🇸🇦 البيانات الرئيسية
Means testing (MT)#

A methodology that determines potential eligibility or computes benefit levels based upon some assessment of the incomes and assets of a family or household.

🇫🇷 Évaluation des ressources (ER)
🇪🇸 Comprobación de los medios de vida (CM)
🇸🇦 اختبار الوساذل

Data that describes other data.

🇫🇷 Métadonnées
🇪🇸 Metadatos
🇸🇦 البيانات الوصفية
Migrant worker#

A person who is to be engaged, is engaged, or has been engaged in remunerated activity in a state or country of which he or she is not a citizen.

🇫🇷 Travailleur migrant
🇪🇸 Trabajador migrante
🇸🇦 عامل مهاجر


Notification and onboarding#

Notification involves informing applicants of their enrollment decisions (in, wait-listed, or out), and onboarding involves finalizing the enrollment process for those who have been selected (conducting orientation, collecting additional information, providing option to opt-out, etc.).

🇫🇷 Notification et intégration
🇪🇸 Notificación e incorporación en el sistema
🇸🇦 إشعار والاندماج في النظام


On-demand approach for intake and registration#

Approach that allows anyone to apply and register their information to be considered for potential inclusion in one or more programs. Three key features characterize on-demand approaches: (1) the impetus for initiating the engagement is driven by the clients (not the “state”), who take the initiative to apply; (2) specific clients engage on their own; and (3) timing: with the on-demand approach, specific clients engage in intake and registration on their own timing. While on-demand approaches are driven largely by the way intake and registration is carried out, they also influence other phases of the delivery chain. See also administrator-driven approach.

🇫🇷 Approche à la demande pour l'accueil et l'enregistrement
🇪🇸 Enfoque por demanda para la recepción y el registro
🇸🇦 النهج حسب الطلب للتسجيل والتسجيل
One-stop shops/service centers#

One form of “integrated service provision” whereby all services are co-located, so the client needs to go to only one place for support. In some cases, these may be for both labor and social benefits and services together. In other cases, they may be for labor services separately (e.g., job centers). Other modalities combine social and health benefits and services (such as the “department of health and human services” that is common in the United States and Australia).

🇫🇷 Guichets uniques/centres de services
🇪🇸 Ventanillas únicas/centros de servicios integrados
🇸🇦 متاجر/مراكز خدمات شاملة
Open-source software#

Software developed by informal collaborative networks of programmers and are usually free. Anyone is freely licensed to use, copy, study, distribute, and change the software in any way, and the source code is openly shared so that people are encouraged to voluntarily improve the design of the software.19 For more details and examples of open-source software, visit resources/what-open-source.

🇫🇷 Logiciel open source
🇪🇸 Software de código abierto
🇸🇦 البرمجيات مفتوحة المصدر

Deliberate efforts to reach and inform intended population and vulnerable groups about social protection programs and delivery systems so that they are aware, informed, able, and encouraged to engage.

🇫🇷 Sensibilisation
🇪🇸 Difusión
🇸🇦 التوعية

An arrangement where an entity decides to contract out the supply of services (sometimes goods) necessary to its operation to another entity, which then carries out the work using its own staff and equipment.

🇫🇷 Externalisation
🇪🇸 Externalización
🇸🇦 التعهيد
Oversight and controls#

Measures, tools, and systems to prevent, detect, deter, and monitor error, fraud, and corruption (EFC).

🇫🇷 Supervision et contrôle
🇪🇸 Supervisión y controles
🇸🇦 الرقابة والضوابط


Passive labor market programs#

Programs that provide income replacement to unemployed workers without requiring any job-search or work-related activation efforts.

🇫🇷 Programme passif d'emploi
🇪🇸 Programas pasivos del mercado laboral
🇸🇦 برامج سوق العمل السلبية
Payment service provider#

The public or private sector organization tasked with delivering the social protection program’s payments, such as a bank, post office, mobile network operator, nongovernmental organization, savings and credit cooperative organization, or microfinance institution.

🇫🇷 Prestataire des services de paiement
🇪🇸 Proveedor de servicios de pago
🇸🇦 مزود خدمة الدفع
Payments administration#

The required steps to transfer cash to beneficiaries or into the beneficiaries’ accounts. Payments administration includes establishing and verifying the payroll and setting up the payment schedule, requesting the inter-account transfer (by the overseeing ministry to the treasury), issuing the inter-account payment order (by the treasury to the payment service provider), issuing the payment instruction (by the overseeing ministry to the payment service provider), and providing the payments to the beneficiaries (by the payment service provider).

🇫🇷 Administration des paiements
🇪🇸 Administración de los pagos
🇸🇦 إدارة المدفوعات
Payments provision#

Processes to transfer and deliver benefits to recipients.

🇫🇷 Modalités de paiement
🇪🇸 Provisión de pagos
🇸🇦 اعتماد المدفوعات
Payments reconciliation#

An accounting process that uses two sets of records to ensure figures are correct and in agreement. It confirms whether the money leaving an account matches the amount that has been spent and makes sure the two are balanced at the end of the recording period. For cash benefits, reconciliation confirms whether the funds transferred to the service provider match the amounts paid out to beneficiaries for that implementation cycle, and identifies any amounts not disbursed.

🇫🇷 Rapprochement des paiements
🇪🇸 Conciliación de pagos
🇸🇦 تسوية المدفوعات
Performance measurement framework#

Serves three main purposes. First, performance indicators that are monitored regularly can help diagnose bottlenecks in the delivery chain early on and help correct course to prevent systemic challenges. Second, paired with other evaluative techniques, performance indicator frameworks can also help identify alternative channels, processes, or practices that enable the system to be more effective or save clients time or money. Performance measures of delivery systems can feed into a broader set of evaluative evidence on the program, including impact evaluations, and contribute to a broader learning agenda to refine and improve a program’s impact. Third, a performance measurement system is an important part of a wider oversight function for social protection programs, ensuring that public funds are allocated effectively.

🇫🇷 Cadre de mesure de la performance
🇪🇸 Marco de medición del desempeño
🇸🇦 إطار قياس الأداء
Personal data#

Any information relating to an individual who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier (e.g., name, identification number, location data, online identifier, or one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural, or social identity of that individual).

🇫🇷 Donnée personnelle
🇪🇸 Datos personales
🇸🇦 البيانات الشخصية
Procedure of payments#

Refers to the systematic method through which financial benefits or assistance are disbursed to eligible individuals or household. This procedure is a critical component of social protection systems, as it ensures that support reaches those in need in an efficient, timely, and secure manner.

🇫🇷 Modalités de paiement
🇪🇸 Provisión de pagos
🇸🇦 إجراءات الدفع
Provision of services#

Refers to the delivery of various forms of assistance and support to individuals and communities to enhance their social welfare and protect them against certain risks and vulnerabilities. These services are an integral part of social protection systems and can include a wide range of interventions

🇫🇷 Prestation de services
🇪🇸 Provisión de servicios
🇸🇦 تقديم الخدمات
Proxy means testing#

A tool used to assess a family’s socioeconomic status using a composite measure that calculates a weighted score based on observable household characteristics, such as demographic structures, education levels, location and quality of the household’s dwelling, and ownership of durable goods and other assets. These variables are all considered “proxies” for incomes or consumption, which may be more difficult to measure and observe in situations of high informality.

🇫🇷 Évaluation des ressources par approximation (Proxy Means Testing – PMT – en anglais)
🇪🇸 Comprobación sustitutiva de los medios de vida (CSM)
🇸🇦 اختبار الوكيل


Recruitment incentives/wage subsidies#

Measures providing incentives for the creation and take-up of new jobs or that promote opportunities for improving employability through work experience, and which are payable for a limited period only. Recruitment incentives may include benefits provided exclusively to persons from labor market program target group and that are conditional upon the take-up of a new job (back-to-work bonus, mobility/relocation allowance, or the like).

🇫🇷 Aide à l'embauche/aide salariale
🇪🇸 Incentivos a la contratación/subvenciones salariales
🇸🇦 حوافز التوظيف/إعانات الأجور
Reduction of benefits for noncompliance with conditionalities#

When a beneficiary repeatedly fails to comply with conditionalities or co-responsibilities in a conditional cash transfer program, some countries impose a penalty on benefits, meaning that the beneficiary will lose all or part of the household benefits for some period until compliance resumes.

🇫🇷 Réduction des prestations pour non-respect des conditions d'éligibilité
🇪🇸 Reducción de los beneficios por incumplimiento de las condicionalidades
🇸🇦 تخفيض المزايا لعدم الامتثال للشروط

Someone who has been forced to flee their country because of persecution, war, or violence.

🇫🇷 Réfugié(e)
🇪🇸 Persona refugiada
🇸🇦 لاجئ

Individuals, families, or household who have provided their information during the intake and registration phase of the delivery chain. They may have provided their information at their own initiative (on demand; see applicants) or at the initiative of a public agency or program (as in the case of en masse registration/census sweeps). In the latter case, we do not call them applicants because they did not technically “apply” for benefits and services.

🇫🇷 Enregistré(e)
🇪🇸 Persona registrada
🇸🇦 المسجل

The process of recording and verifying the information collected from the intake process. It can also involve pulling additional information from other administrative systems. Intake and registration usually happen simultaneously.

🇫🇷 Enregistrement
🇪🇸 Registro
🇸🇦 التسجيل
Registration quotas#

Explicit caps (limits) on the number of household that can be registered in a specific district.

🇫🇷 Quota d'enregistrement
🇪🇸 Cuotas de registro
🇸🇦 حصص التسجيل
Registration targets#

Planned number of household that would be registered in a specific district, but without operating as a fixed or rigid quota (cap or limit).

🇫🇷 Nombre ciblé d'enregistrés
🇪🇸 Objetivos de registro
🇸🇦 أهداف التسجيل


Service Point#

A Service Point is a designated physical or virtual location where individuals can access and receive social protection services and benefits. It facilitates key functions like application processing, information provision, benefit distribution, and program enrollment assistance. These points ensure accessibility and convenience for beneficiaries, serving as essential hubs for direct interaction between social protection programs and their users.

🇫🇷 Guichet de services
🇪🇸 Punto de Servicio
🇸🇦 نقطة الخدمة

Intangible acts, activities, or works provided to, or with the participation of, beneficiaries as a contribution to their well-being (such as to reduce poverty, provide opportunities, enhance employability, reduce social risks, etc.). They may be administered by public agencies or outsourced to third parties using government funding. See also definitions of employment services, active labor market programs, and social services.

🇫🇷 Services
🇪🇸 Servicios
🇸🇦 الخدمات
Social assistance#

Social safety net programs that are noncontributory transfers in cash or in-kind and are usually targeted to the poor and vulnerable but may also support other groups (such as the long-term unemployed, disabled, etc.). Some programs are focused on improving chronic poverty or providing equality of opportunity; others more on protecting families from shocks and longstanding losses they can inflict for the unprotected poor. These programs, also known as social welfare, include cash transfers (conditional and unconditional), in-kind transfers, such as school feeding and targeted food assistance, and near cash benefits such as fee waivers and food vouchers.

🇫🇷 Assistance sociale
🇪🇸 Asistencia social
🇸🇦 المساعدة الاجتماعية
Social insurance#

Composed of programs that minimize the negative impact of economic shocks on individuals and families. They include publicly provided or mandated insurance schemes against old age, disability, death of the main household provider, maternity leave and sickness cash benefits, and social health insurance. Social insurance programs are contributory, and beneficiaries receive benefits or services in recognition of contributions to an insurance scheme.

🇫🇷 Assurance sociale
🇪🇸 Seguridad social
🇸🇦 التأمين الاجتماعي
Social pensions#

social assistance (noncontributory) benefits paid to categorical groups of the population, such as the elderly or disabled. They may be universal (paid to all in that category) or targeted (paid to those in that category who are also poor).

🇫🇷 Pension sociale
🇪🇸 Pensiones sociales
🇸🇦 معاشات اجتماعية
Social protection#

Systems that help individuals, families, and household, especially the poor and vulnerable, cope with crises and shocks, find jobs, invest in the health and education of their children, and protect the aging population.

🇫🇷 Protection sociale
🇪🇸 Protección social
🇸🇦 الحماية الاجتماعية
Social protection (SP) payments#

The transfer of cash or near cash to social protection program recipients (whether contributory or noncontributory programs). They include government-to-person (G2P) and personto-government (P2G) payments.

🇫🇷 Paiement de protection sociale (PS)
🇪🇸 Pagos de protección social (PS)
🇸🇦 مدفوعات الحماية الاجتماعية (SP)
Social registry#

information systems that support the processes of outreach, intake and registration, and assessment of needs and conditions to determine potential eligibility for social programs. They maintain information on all registered household regardless of whether they eventually benefit from a social program. As such, we do not refer to households in social registries as “beneficiaries” but as “registered households.”

🇫🇷 Registre social
🇪🇸 Registro social
🇸🇦 سجل اجتماعي
Social services#

A wide variety of programs made available by public or private agencies to support individuals or families in addressing their particular risks and improving their overall well-being.

🇫🇷 Services sociaux
🇪🇸 Servicios sociales
🇸🇦 الخدمات الاجتماعية


Target group#

refers to the specific segment of the population identified as the primary recipients of social welfare programs and interventions. These groups are usually determined based on certain characteristics or vulnerabilities that make them more in need of support. Understanding and accurately identifying target groups is crucial for the effective design and implementation of social protection policies.

🇫🇷 Groupes ciblés
🇪🇸 Grupo objetivo
🇸🇦 المجموعة المستهدفة

Targeting in social protection refers to the process or method used to determine which individuals or groups within a population will receive social protection benefits and services. The objective of targeting is to ensure that these resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, reaching those who are most in need. In social protection, targeting is a critical concept, as resources are often limited and the needs are high. Effective targeting can significantly impact the overall success and fairness of social protection programs.

🇫🇷 Ciblage
🇪🇸 Focalización
🇸🇦 توجيه
Targeting criteria#

A policy that seeks to direct an intervention (benefit or service) to the intended population, to minimize the coverage of those not intended to be beneficiaries (errors of inclusion) and the noncoverage of intended beneficiaries (errors of exclusion). (We prefer to avoid using the term targeting in relation to an act of implementation.)

🇫🇷 Critères de ciblage
🇪🇸 Criterios de focalización
🇸🇦 معايير الاستهداف
Termination of benefits for conditionalities noncompliance#

When a beneficiary continuously fails to comply with conditionalities or co-responsibilities over a longer period, some countries cancel or terminate benefits and exit the family from the program (usually permanently or for a significant duration of time before one can reapply, barring appeals).

🇫🇷 Arrêt des prestations pour non-respect des conditions d'éligibilité
🇪🇸 Cese de los beneficios por incumplimiento de las condicionalidades
🇸🇦 إنهاء المزايا لعدم الامتثال للشروط
Three-tier architecture#

A client-server architecture that is made up of three layers: the data layer, business logic layer, and presentation layer. This is also known as model view controller (MVC) architecture.

🇫🇷 Architecture à trois niveaux
🇪🇸 Arquitectura de tres niveles
🇸🇦 بنيه ثلاثيه الطبقات
Time; costs; visits (TCV)#

An indicator of the amount of time people spend on the process, the amount of money they spend to participate (such as transport costs, childcare costs, missed work, and notary fees), and the number of visits they must make to the local office or other agencies.

🇫🇷 Temps, coûts, visites (TCV)
🇪🇸 Tiempo, gastos y visitas (TGV)
🇸🇦 الوقت، التكاليف، الزيارات (TCV)

Measures that aim to improve employability and are financed by public bodies. All training measures should include some evidence of classroom teaching, or if in the workplace, supervision specifically for the purpose of instruction. Includes institutional training, and workplace training, alternate training, and apprenticeships.

🇫🇷 Formation
🇪🇸 Capacitación
🇸🇦 تدريب
Turnkey system#

A complete system solution, including software and hardware, that is sold to the purchasing organization as a complete product without the need for additional configuration and can be used immediately once installed or implemented.

🇫🇷 Système clé en main
🇪🇸 Sistema completo «llave en mano»
🇸🇦 نظام مفتاح في اليد


Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs)#

Programs that provide cash transfer benefits to individuals, families, or household without imposing any conditions on the beneficiaries.

🇫🇷 Transfert monétaire inconditionnel (TMI)
🇪🇸 Transferencias monetarias no condicionadas (TMNC)
🇸🇦 التحويلات النقدية غير المشروطة
Unemployment benefits#

All forms of cash benefit to compensate for unemployment, including unemployment assistance (noncontributory) or unemployment insurance (based on contributions and earning history). benefits may be included as components of activation programs.

🇫🇷 Prestation de chômage
🇪🇸 Beneficios de desempleo
🇸🇦 إعانات البطالة

People who are jobless, actively looking for work, and currently available for work. See also long-term unemployment.

🇫🇷 Chômage, sans emploi
🇪🇸 Desempleo, desempleados
🇸🇦 البطالة، العاطلين عن العمل

Most definitions are coming from those sources: - World Bank Source Book - Calp Glossary